European Journal of Translational Myology <p>The <strong>European Journal of Translational Myology</strong> (formerly known as <em>Basic and Applied Myology</em>) is the European reference forum for Translational Myology. The <strong>European Journal of Translational Myology</strong>&nbsp;is a multifaceted journal studying myology from various perspectives: basic, cellular and molecular, genetic, clinical, and translational proper.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US European Journal of Translational Myology 2037-7452 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Role of fasciae in nonspecific low back pain <p>More and more evidences show how the thoracolumbar fascia is involved with nonspecific low back pain. Additionally, recent studies about anatomy have shown the presence of a continuity between the thoracolumbar fascia and the deep fascia of the limbs; but actually, a dysfunction of just the thoracolumbar fascia or of the tightly contiguous myofascial tissue is generally recognized as possible cause of nonspecific low back pain. Five patients among those affected by nonspecific low back pain were manipulated just on those fascial spots that were painful, when palpated, and located in other areas of the body than the low back one. Each patient reported a clinically significant reduction of the painful symptoms (a Pain Numerical Rating Scale score difference ≥ 2) straight after the manipulation. A dysfunction of the myofascial tissue that is not tightly contiguous with the symptomatic area is then suggested to be taken into consideration among the causes of nonspecific low back-pain.</p> Giulia Casato Carla Stecco Riccardo Busin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-06 2019-08-06 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8330 Fascial organisation of motor synergies: a hypothesis <p>In the field of biomechanics and motor control understanding movement coordination is paramount. Motor synergies represent the coordination of neural and physical elements embedded in our bodies in order to optimize the solutions to motor problems. Although we are able to measure and quantify the movement made manifested, we do not have confidence in explaining the anatomical bases of its organisation at different levels. It is our contention that the flexible hierarchical organization of movement relies on the fascial structurers to create functional linkages at different levels, and this concept attunes with the neural control of synergies. At the base of movement organization there is a (somatic) equilibrium point that exists on the fascia where the neurologically- and mechanically-generated tensions dynamically balance out. This somatic equilibrium point is at the base of postural control, afferent flow of information to the nervous system about the state of the muscles, and of the coordinative pre-activation of muscular contraction sequences specific for a synergy. Implications are discussed and suggestions for research and clinical applications are made.</p> Alessandro Garofolini Daris Svanera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-08 2019-08-08 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8313 The crural interosseous membrane re-visited: a histological and microscopic study <p>The aim of this study was to characterize the microscopic structure and sensory nerve endings of the crural interosseous membrane (IM). 13 IMs from 7 cadavers were used to analyze the organization of the collagen fibers, IM’s thickness, distribution of elastic fibers and nerve elements. The IM is mainly a two-layer collagen fascicle structure with the collagen fibers of adjacent layers orientated along different directions, forming angles of 30.5 +/- 1.7° at proximal and 26.6 +/- 2.1° at distal part (P&gt;0.05). The percentage of elastic fibers between the two layers and inside the collagen fascicle layer is 10.1 +/- 0.5% and 2.2 +/- 0.1% (P&lt;0.001). The IM’s thickness at proximal, middle, and distal parts is 268.5 +/- 18.6μm; 293.2 +/- 12.5μm; 365.3 +/- 19.3 μm, respectively (Proximal vs Distal: P&lt;0.001; Middle vs Distal: P&lt;0.05). Nerve elements were present and located both inside and on the surface of the IM, whereas the mechanoreceptors are mainly located on the surface of the IM. Free nerve endings (33.3 +/- 5.0/cm<sup>2</sup>) and Ruffini corpuscles (3.4 +/- 0.6/cm<sup>2</sup>) were the predominant sensory elements, while Pacinian corpuscles (1.3 +/- 0.7/cm<sup>2</sup>) were rarely found. The type of mechanoreceptors found suggests that the IM may play a role in proprioception.</p> Joseph Morley Chenglei Fan Kena McDermott Caterina Fede Emmett Hughes Carla Stecco ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8340 Novel management of glioma by molecular therapies, a review article <p>The most frequent type of brain tumors is Glioma which commonly appears initially in the neuroglia in the central nervous system. They grow steadily and generally do not outspread to neighboring tissue of the brain. By applying dominant remedial regimens, the patients would have negligible survival rates. Despite the achieved advances in conventional glioma therapy, it proved that a proper medication for glioma is not easily reachable. The glioma penetration nature and accumulate resistance considerably limit the remedial options. Superior explanation of the glioma complex pathobiology and characterization of biological proteogenomic may finally open new approaches for the outlining of extra artificial and impressive combination regimens. This aim could be achieved by exclusively outfitting advanced techniques of neuroimaging, terminating synthesis of DNA via genes that activated via prodrugs, experimental technique of gene therapy via conciliating genes of gliomagenesis, targeting miRNA-mRNA activity of oncogenic, applying stem cell therapy for combining inhibitors of Hedgehog-Gli, adaptive transmission of chimeric immunoreceptors T cells, incorporate inhibitors of regulators of the immune system with conventional remedial modalities and additionally using tumor cell lysates as sources of antigen for efficient evacuation of particular stem cells of tumor via cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Consequently, in this study the authors trying to survey the latest progressions related to the molecular procedures connected with the formation of glial tumors in addition to the radiation, surgery and chemotherapy limitations. Additionally, the novel strategies of molecular remedies and their procedure for the prosperous treatment of glioma will be discussed.</p> Amin Alinezhad Fatemeh Jafari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-21 2019-08-21 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8209 Master World Records show minor gender differences of performance decline with aging <p>Aging behaviours are significantly different in females and males, e.g., the former have a longer life expectancy, but consistently a weaker muscle force. Our purpose is to analyse possible gender-differential declines of skeletal muscle performance. The method to find out the decline of performances with aging is based on a parametric analysis of the World Records of Master athletes in different Track and Field events. The analysis is a transformation (normalization) of sports results into dimensionless parameters ranging from the maximum value of 1 (for the absolute world record) to decreasing values with decreasing performances. Master athletes compete in age groups of 5 years till the age of 100 years, thus their World Records are lists of up to 16 data. Results of the normalization procedure are trend-lines indicating that the decline starts not later than the age of thirty years for both women and women. The decline with aging of the muscle performances indicates only minor gender differences in the aging process and all trend-lines tend to zero at about the age of 110 years. The approach, making use of a homogeneous cohort of testers, gets rid of the main confounding factors biasing other kind of studies of the muscle performance decline with aging, in particular clinical studies. Comparing normalized female and male World Records of Master athletes, a surprise emerged: aging decline is very similar, if not identical, the unique exception to the general rule of gender differences in sports activities. The substantial identity of decline trends among females and males suggests that neuro-hormonal differences among genders poorly influence the aging decline, being conceivably related to fundamental cell bioregulators, such as those of cellular energy metabolism and/or their epigenetic regulatory mechanisms.</p> Paolo Gava Barbara Ravara ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-02 2019-08-02 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8327 Therapeutic effects of iNOS inhibition against vitiligo in an animal model <p>Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in several biological processes, but its role in human melanogenesis and vitiligo need further studies. Previous studies revealed that exposure to UVA and UVB were capable of the inducing nitric oxide production in keratinocytes and melanocytes through the activation of constitutive nitric oxide synthase, whereas inducible nitric oxide synthase overexpression has been reported to play an important role in hyperpigmentary disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) as a therapeutic agent in our mouse model of vitiligo. In this study, male C57BL/6J Ler-vit/vit mice were purchased to evaluate the effect of iNOS inhibitor (aminoguanidine) (50 and 100 mg/kg) and L-arginine (100 mg/kg) in a mouse model of vitiligo induced by monobenzone 40%. Moreover, we used phototherapy device to treat the mice with NBUVB as a gold standard.The findings revealed that monobenzone was capable of inducing depigmentation after 6 weeks. However, aminoguanidine in combination with monobenzone was decrease the effect of monobenzone, while L-arginine play a key role in promoting the effect of monobenzone (P&lt;0.001). Based on the phototherapy, the efficacy of phototherapy significantly increased by adding L-arginine (P&lt;0.05). Taken together, we suggest that iNOS inhibitor can be a novel treatment for the prevention and treatment of vitiligo by combination of NBUVB therapy, furthermore; NO agents like L-arginine could also increase the effectiveness of phototherapy. Taken together, this pilot study showed significant repigmentation of vitiligous lesions treated with iNOS inhibitor plus NBUVB therapy, where other aspect including expression of an inducible iNOS, NO and TNF levels remained to be evaluated in mice model.</p> Hamid Mansourpour Katayoun Ziari Sahar Kalantar Motamedi Amin Hassan Poor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-06 2019-08-06 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8383 Comparison between ultrasonographic findings and fine needle aspiration cytology in differentiating malignant and benign thyroid nodules <p>The purpose of research was comparing the ultrasound (US) features and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in detecting the thyroid nodules in clinical practice. A cross-sectional analytical study retrospectively reviewed the US and FNAC findings for a total of 170 thyroid nodules. The US features that we compared included echogenicity, calcifications, shape, halo and Doppler, between 2017 and 2018. Totally, 170 nodules of thyroid were studied, which contained 72 (42.4%) benign and 98 (57.6%) malignant thyroid nodules. The sonographic features were significantly associated with malignancy such as microcalcification (97.0%), hyperechogenicity (91.5%), wider than taller shape (98.0%), absent halo (90.9%) and positive Doppler (78.0%) (P &lt; 0.01). The altogether accuracies of calcification, echogenicity, shape, halo, and Doppler were 0.96, 0.92, 0.97,0.82 and 0.82, respectively. Our data suggest that US features could be a good sonographic criterion for recommending FNA cytology with follow‐up thyroid sonography and FNA.</p> Mahdi Mohebbi Mehrzad Gholampour Dehaki Mahsa Mozaffari Farhad Hosseinpanah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-06 2019-08-06 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8354 Comparison of renal arterial resistive index in type 2 diabetic nephropathy stage 0-4 <p>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of world health problems and its prevalence and incidence is increasing. Chronic Kidney Failure involves a range of pathophysiologic processes that are associated with impaired renal function, leading to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Renal artery resistive index (RI) is indicator of atherosclerotic change in small vessels. The current study was aimed to assess RI in diabetic nephropathy patients at stage 0-4 and to compare RRI with HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In this cross sectional study,100 diabetic nephropathy patients who attend to nephrology clinic of Ali-ibn Abi Talib Hospital were entered to the study. Ultrasound Doppler renal resistive index was measured and other information was recorded from their last lab data that was recorded in their medical records. Variable included: systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, albuminuria, GFR, HbA1c. All data was analyzed by Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The findings indicated a significant correlation of RI with systolic BP (p=0.04 R=0.75), microalbuminuria (P=0.001 R=0.67), and GFR (P=0.001 R=0.76), while diastolic BP (P=0/45 R=0/32), HbA1c (P=0/56 R=0/43) were not found to be associated with RI. The findings indicated that increased systolic blood pressure, albumin excretion (microalbuminuria) and severity of disease were capable of increasing RI values in diabetic nephropathy patients. In addition, decreased GFR.</p> Sharareh Sanei Sistani Ali Alidadi Alireza Ansari Moghadam Fatemeh Mohamadnezhad Bahareh Heshmat Ghahderijani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-06 2019-08-06 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8364 Seasonal variations of 25-OH vitamin D serum levels in Multiple Sclerosis patients with relapse using MRI <p>An increasing body of evidence suggests that low vitamin D (25-[OH]-D) concentrations is linked to increased activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and MS relapse. Therefore, the current study was aimed to evaluate vitamin D serum concentrations and its possible seasonal variations among MS patients with relapse. This prospective, descriptive study was conducted on patients with MS relapse who referred to the neurology center of Ali ibn Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan during one year. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-Spine was performed for 90 patients and serum samples were collected from patient to measure serum vitamin D levels using RIA KIT. Furthermore, the Plaques in each patient's MRI were counted and then recorded. Descriptive and inductive statistics were conducted using statistical software. Our findings indicated a significant correlation between serum vitamin D level and cervical spinal cord plaques (p = 0.007, r=0.28), while no association was revealed between serum vitamin D level and number of brain plaque. Furthermore, a significant association was also observed between number of cervical spinal cord plaques and serum vitamin D levels. In addition, a reverse correlation was observed between number of cervical spinal cord plaques and serum vitamin D levels in spring. In autumn, there was a statistically significant relationship between number of brain plaque and serum vitamin D level. Additionally, a statistically significant relationship was found between serum vitamin D levels and number of plaques in winter. Our findings are in agreement with some previous studies that reported conflicting result, where the association of season with the prevalence of relapse cases cannot be verified. Although the mean serum levels of vitamin D are inversely correlated with the incidence of relapses in winter. However, the values obtained in the spring do not confirm such an inverse relationship.</p> Sharareh Sanei Sistani Ali Moghtaderi Ali Reza Dashipoor Maryam Ghaffarpoor Bahareh Heshmat Ghahderijani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-08 2019-08-08 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8361