European Journal of Translational Myology 2019-06-17T18:07:08+02:00 Francesca Baccino Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>European Journal of Translational Myology</strong> (formerly known as <em>Basic and Applied Myology</em>) is the European reference forum for Translational Myology. The <strong>European Journal of Translational Myology</strong>&nbsp;is a multifaceted journal studying myology from various perspectives: basic, cellular and molecular, genetic, clinical, and translational proper.</p> Investigation into Breast Cancer and Partial Breast Reconstruction: A Review 2019-06-17T18:04:41+02:00 Mohammad Reza Ebadi Maryam Kazemi Aghdam Zeinab Safarpour Lima Ladan Younesi <p>Growing increasingly in South America, Africa and Asia, breast cancer is known as the dominant type of cancer in women. Different treatments are available for breast cancer, among which surgery is the most widely used, but researchers are trying to develop new strategies. One of the most prominent surgical methods is referred to as oncoplastic surgery, that helps to remove segments of malignant breast tissue. This type of surgery aims to obtain vast surgical margins, while the remaining tissue is rearranged so that the better cosmetic outcome is obtained. This review will investigate the breast cancer and then discuss partial breast reconstruction. Before outlining the procedures, the different types of partial breast reconstruction will be discussed. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be outlined. MEDLINE database was used to conduct the search. The main terms used were ‘Conservation Breast Surgery Reconstruction’ AND ‘Oncoplastic Surgery’, ‘Partial Mastectomy Reconstruction’ AND ‘Conservative Breast Surgery Reconstruction’, ‘oncoplastic’ [All Fields], ‘breast’ AND ‘surgery’ OR ‘surgery’ operative’, ‘oncoplastic’ (‘breast’)’. The bibliographies of relevant papers were manually searched up to October 2018, but more recent voices are also included.</p> 2019-05-16T15:55:45+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A proposed role for non-junctional transverse tubules in skeletal muscle as flexible segments allowing expansion of the transverse network 2019-06-17T18:05:10+02:00 Manuela Lavorato Ramesh Iyer Clara Franzini-Armstrong <p>Using a variety of technical approaches, we have detected the presence of continuous triads that cover the entire length of T tubules in the main white body muscles of several small fish. This is in contrast to the discontinuous association of SR with T tubules in the red muscles from the same fish as well as in all other previously described muscles in a large variety of skeletal muscles. We suggest that continuous triads are permissible only in muscle fibers that are not normally subject to significant changes in sarcomere length during normal <em>in vivo</em> activity, as is the case for white muscles in the trunk of fish.</p> 2019-05-16T14:17:44+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relevance of lactate level detection in migrane and fibromyalgia 2019-06-17T18:06:07+02:00 Patrizia Proia Alessandra Amato Valentina Contrò Alessandra Lo Monaco Jessica Brusa Filippo Brighina Giuseppe Messina <p>The aim of this study was to determine the blood lactate levels in healthy and pathological subjects, particularly with migraine and fibromyalgia. Moreover we investigated the possible correlation between lactate concentration, postural stability and balance disorders; the composition of the groups were: migraine (n = 25; age 49.7 ± 12.5), fibromyalgia (n = 10; age 43.7 ± 21.2), control group (n = 16 age 28.52 ± 2.4). The results showed that patients with fibromyalgia (FG) had higher lactate levels compared to migraine (MG) and control group (CG) (mean ± sd: FG = 1.78 ± 0.9 mmol/L; MG = 1.45±1 mmol/L; CG = 0,85 ± 0,07 mmol/L). The same situation was highlighted about the sway path length with eyes closed (FG = 518 ± 195 mm; MG = 465 ± 165 mm; CG = 405 ± 94,72 mm) and with eyes open (FG = 430 ± 220 mm; MG = 411 ± 143 mm; CG = 389 ± 107 mm). This can be explained by the fact that energy-intensive postural strategies must be used to optimize both static and dynamic coordination, in particular with repeated contractions of tonic oxidative muscle cells responsible for postural control.</p> 2019-05-09T09:40:59+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Srf KO and wild-type mice similarly adapt to endurance exercise 2019-06-17T18:03:15+02:00 Haidar Djemai Medhi Hassani Nissrine Daou Zhenlin Li Athanassia Sotiropoulos Philippe Noirez Dario Coletti <p>Physical exercise has important effects as secondary prevention or intervention against several diseases. Endurance exercise induces local and global effects, resulting in skeletal muscle adaptations to aerobic activity and contributes to an amelioration of muscle performance. Furthermore, it prevents muscle loss. Serum response factor (Srf) is a transcription factor of pivotal importance for muscle tissues and animal models of Srf genetic deletion/over-expression are widely used to study Srf role in muscle homeostasis, physiology and pathology. A global characterisation of exercise adaptation in the absence of Srf has not been reported. We measured body composition, muscle force, running speed, energy expenditure and metabolism in WT and inducible skeletal muscle-specific Srf KO mice, following three weeks of voluntary exercise by wheel running. We found a major improvement in the aerobic capacity and muscle function in WT mice following exercise, as expected, and no major differences were observed in Srf KO mice as compared to WT mice, following exercise. Taken together, these observations suggest that Srf is not required for an early (within 3 weeks) adaptation to spontaneous exercise and that Srf KO mice behave similarly to the WT in terms of spontaneous physical activity and the resulting adaptive responses. Therefore, Srf KO mice can be used in functional muscle studies, without the results being affected by the lack of Srf. Since lack of Srf induces premature sarcopenia, our observations suggest that the modifications due to the absence of Srf take time to occur and that young, Srf KO mice behave similarly to WT in aerobic physical activities.</p> 2019-06-07T09:11:05+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mind-muscle connection: effects of verbal instructions on muscle activity during bench press exercise 2019-06-17T18:03:05+02:00 Antonio Paoli Laura Mancin Matteo Saoncella Davide Grigoletto Francesco Q. Pacelli Paola Zamparo Brad J. Schoenfeld Giuseppe Marcolin <p>Different attentional foci may modify muscle activation during exercises. Our aim was to determine if it is possible to selectively activate the pectoralis major or triceps brachii muscles according to specific verbal instructions provided during the bench press exercise. 13 resistance-trained males (25.6±5.4 yrs, 182.7±9.1 cm, 86.4±9.7 kg) underwent an electromyographic signals acquisition of the sternocostal head (SP), clavicular head of the pectoralis major (CP), the anterior deltoid (AD), and the long head of the triceps brachii (LT) during bench press exercise. Participants performed one non-instructed set (NIS) of 4 repetitions at 50% 1-RM and one non-instructed set (NIS) of 4 repetitions at 80% 1-RM. Four additional sets of 4 repetitions at 50% and 80% 1-RM were randomly performed with verbal instructions to isolate the chest muscles (chest instructed set, CIS) or to isolate the triceps muscles (triceps instructed set, TIS). Participants showed significantly higher LT activation during TIS compared to NIS both at 50% (p=0.0199) and 80% 1-RM (p=0.0061) respectively. TIS elicited a significant (p=0.0250) higher activation of LT compared to CIS. Our results suggest that verbal instructions seem to be effective for increasing activity of the triceps brachii but not the pectoralis major during the bench press.</p> 2019-06-12T11:14:47+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Urinary antigene and PCR can both be used to detect Legionella pneumophila in children's hospital-acquired pneumonia 2019-06-17T18:07:08+02:00 Sayed-Yousef Mojtahedi Aliakbar Rahbarimanesh Samileh Noorbakhsh Hossein Shokri Saeedreza Jamali-Moghadam-Siyahkali Anahita Izadi <p><em>Legionella pneumophila</em> is the causative agent of more than 95% cases of severe <em>Legionella pneumonia.</em> Nosocomial pneumonias in different hospital wards is an important medical and pharmaceutical concern. This study aimed to detect <em>Legionella</em> with two methods: polymerase chain reaction [PCR] and detection of urine antigenic test [UAT] in patients suffering from nosocomial pneumonia admitted to pediatric intensive care unit [PICU] of children hospitals. This study was conducted in PICU wards of Rasool Akram and Bahrami children hospitals, Tehran, Iran during 2013 - 2014. In patients diagnosed with hospital-acquired pneumonia, intratracheal secretion samples for PCR and urine sample for urinary antigen test [UTA] were taken. Simultaneously, PCR and urinary antigen test were conducted using commercial kits. The results of urinary antigen test and PCR were analyzed by SPSS v.19 for statistical comparison. In this study, 96 patients aging 2.77 years on average with two age peaks of less than 1 year and 7-8 year were enrolled. More than half of the patients were under 1 year old. The most common underlying diseases were seizure, Acute Lymphoblastic Lymphoma, Down syndrome and metabolic syndromes. The positivity rate of <em>Legionella</em> urinary antigen test was 16.7% and positivity rate of PCR test was 19.8%. There were no significant associations between the results obtained by both assays with age, gender or underlying diseases. In conclusion, PCR is a better detection method for Legionella infection than urinary antigen test, but the difference between the two methods was not significant.</p> 2019-05-07T12:07:56+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Natural host preferences of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on synanthropic flies 2019-06-17T18:06:29+02:00 Mehdi Khoobdel Hossein Sobati Omid Dehghan Kamran Akbarzadeh Ehsan Radi <p>Synanthropic flies are members of order Diptera and considered as medical and veterinary pests. In this study, parasitoid wasps were determined and their natural host preferences in order to select a suitable agent for biological control of flies. The pupae of three species of flies; <em>Musca domestica</em>, <em>Lucilia sericata</em> and <em>Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis</em> were used as hosts for natural parasitoids. For this issue, as much as 50 pupae of each fly species put in three separate dishes with covered top by a net. These dishes were placed in the field to attract parasitoid wasps. The most parasitic rate was related to <em>N. vitripennis</em> (%17.2). Host preferences of <em>N. vitripennis</em> on <em>M. domestica</em> pupae were higher than observed parasitism on <em>L. sericata</em> and <em>S. haemorrhoidalis</em>. The emerging rate of two parasitoids; <em>P. vindemmiae</em> and <em>S. nigroaenea</em> were one per host pupae. According to the result, <em>N. vitripennis</em> can be an appropriate candidate for use as natural enemy which expected to be effective in controlling various species of synanthropic flies. Therefore, <em>S. nigroaenea</em> was more suitable to biological control of housefly populations.</p> 2019-05-07T12:18:12+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparison of sublingual Buprenorphine and intravenous Morphine in reducing bone metastases associated pain in cancer patients 2019-06-17T18:05:38+02:00 Seyed Mohammad Jamalian Mohammad Sotodeh Fathollah Mohaghegh <p>Bone metastases is one of the most common causes of pain in cancer patients and have a significant effect on their quality of life. The most common symptom of bone metastases is pain that gradually develops. Morphine is used to relieve pain in these patients, poorly accepted by patients due to its adverse events. Therefore, the current study was aimed to compare the effect of sublingual buprenorphine, with certainly lower complications with morphine. Fourth patients were divided into 2 groups. In group A, metastatic cancer patients received 2.5 mg of intravenous (IV) morphine. Furthermore, in group B, sublingual tablet of buprenorphine (one-fourth of a 500 μg tablet) was administered sublingually. Pain was measured 15, 30, and 45 minutes after the onset of pain using visual analog scale (VAS) Ruler. Based on the obtained data, two groups A and B were compared using SPSS 23 software. There was a significant difference between the patient's pain intensity after 15 and 30 minutes from the onset of pain in both groups. Due to the fact that the duration of the effect of morphine is 3-4 hours and the duration of the effect of sublingual buprenorphine is 6-8 hours, therefore, morphine showed fast acting forms of opioids (P= 0.001). The required dose level on the first day was similar in both groups and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. While on the second and third days, the median dose in group A (morphine) was greater than group B (buprenorphine), indicating prolonged duration of action for buprenorphine compared with morphine, thus requiring a lower subsequent doses. The results of this study suggested that sublingual buprenorphine is a higher effective drug compared to intravenous morphine during after operation. With regard to easy and painless administration, it seems that its use can be useful in controlling pain due to bone metastases in cancer patients.</p> 2019-05-13T08:44:53+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Diagnostic value of standard electrocardiogram in acute right ventricular myocardial infarction 2019-06-17T18:04:19+02:00 Ali Taherinia Koorosh Ahmadi Mehran Bahramian Peyman Khademhosseini Zabihollah Taleshi Mohammadreza Maghsoudi Roya Sattarzadeh Badkoubeh Mohammad Taghi Talebian Mehdi Rezaee <p>Myocardial infarction (MI) (i.e., heart attack) is the irreversible death (necrosis) of heart muscle secondary to prolonged lack of oxygen supply (ischemia) which accounts for a large number of deaths in the hospital. Diagnosis of myocardial infarction is confirmed based on clinical manifestations and electrocardiographic changes along with increased cardiac enzymes. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the safest and easiest methods in the first place. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of standard electrocardiogram in the diagnosis of acute right ventricular infarction following lower cardiac infarction. This research was carried out at a time interval of one and a half years to diagnose acute primary infarction. In this method, the diagnostic value of ST↓ in lead I, ST↓ in lead aVL and I ST↓ + aVL, compared with ST↑ in lead V4R was investigated for diagnosis of right ventricular infarction. ST↑ in the lead V4R is a gold standard for the detection of right ventricular MI. All the patients who had the inclusion criteria were allowed to participate in the study. A total of 66 patients participated in the study. Accordingly, 58 (87%) were male and 8 (13%) were female. The mean age of the population was 54.9 ± 11.41. According to the ST↑ standard in lead V4R, 26 patients (39%) had right ventricular myocardial infarction. There was no significant relationship between angina pectoris and premature infarction (P-Value = 0.869). In this study, the right ventricular was most commonly involved in right coronary artery (RCA) (78%). There was no significant relationship between the occlusion of right coronary artery and right ventricular infarction in 60 patients (P-Value = 0.94). The results showed that electrocardiogram manifestations help determine the occlusion site and the area at risk (ST↓ in lead aVL and aVL + I, sensitivity = 96%). In myocardial infarction, symptoms such as the ST-Segment elevation in lead aVR and ST-Segment depression in the lower leads are possible. Accordingly, in the lower infarction, ST changes in the leads V1-V6 are helpful in detecting patients at risk. Thus, the use of electrocardiogram in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) helps detect more invasive patients and prevents extensive myocardial damage and other complications.</p> 2019-05-22T10:50:48+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Clinical outcomes and complications of treatment with supraflex stent in patients with coronary artery disease: One year follow up 2019-06-17T18:04:07+02:00 Zahra Sharifi Majid Jalal Yazdi Ali Eshraghi Vida Vakili Javad Ramezani <p>Cardiovascular disease is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Treatment in most patients is percutanseous coronary intervention. One of new generation drug-eluting stent (DES) is Sirolimus Eluting Stent. The current study was aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes and complications of treatment with supraflex stent during one year follow up in patients with coronary artery disease. This cross-sectional study was performed on patients with myocardial ischemia who were candidate for coronary angioplasty between 2017 -2018 in Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran.. Patients were followed for four primary end points including Target lesion revascularization (TLR), stent thrombosis (ST), myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiac death (CD) for one year. Descriptive data were analyzed by Freidman at a significance level of 0.05. A total of 287 patients were enrolled in the study. There was no TLR, MI, ST and CD records in the one month follow up. Six months follow up demonstrated three TLR patients and three MI patients, but no ST and death were reported. After one year follow up, three cases of CD and four ST cases were found in patients treated with supraflex stent. Based on the Freidman test, the highest rate of TLR was revealed in a six-month follow-up when comparing with one-month and twelve-month follow-up (p = 0.05). No significant relationship was found between the other cases. The most common complications associated with supraflex stent were TLR and MI in six-month follow-up. The most likely occurrence of CD and ST were found in one year follow up.</p> 2019-05-22T15:24:51+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The relationship between Components of Metabolic Syndrome and Plasma Level of Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin 2019-06-17T18:03:24+02:00 Amin Alinezhad Fatemeh Jafari <p>Plasma concentration of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), as an androgen binding protein, is impressed by many physiological and environmental factors. Recent studies have shown that plasma level of SHBG is related to some components of metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, in contrast, few articles failed to show any associations between SHBG and MetS. So, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Components of Metabolic Syndrome and Plasma Level of Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin. In this study, after measuring the plasma level of SHBG in 84 individuals, the relation between MetS and the plasma level of SHBG was investigated. After evaluating the plasma level of SHBG and metabolic abnormalities in men and women, we investigated the factors which mentioned above in two groups including patients with and without MetS. Also, the metabolic abnormalities which evaluated in this study including plasma level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum uric acid (SUA), Albumin, lipid profiles and etc. according to five components of MetS. Our result shows that SHBG could contributed to some laboratory parameters such as LDL-C (P&lt;0.05), total cholesterol (P&lt;0.05), triglycerides (P&lt;0.05) and etc. in men, but not in women. On the other hand, we observed that concentration of SHBG is higher in patients with MetS (P&lt;0.05); however, results from our experiment showed that there is no relation between lower level of SHBG and five components of MetS such as central obesity, raised fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (P&gt;0.05), reduced HDL-C (P&gt;0.05), raised triglycerides (P&gt;0.05) and raised blood pressure (P&gt;0.05) in both men and women. There is a significant association between SHBG and Log-Hip Circumference (P&lt;0.05), Non-HDL-C (P&lt;0.05) and Log-25(OH)D (P&lt;0.05) was seen in this cross-section study in both men and women. Results obtained from our study suggest that SHBG is not a powerful enough factor to use as a predictor of MetS alone and there is no association between plasma level of SHBG and development of five components of MetS, however, lower SHBG level may contributed to lipid profiles.</p> 2019-06-06T09:35:42+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##